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Pile of Levi's denim jeans
07 Mar
Pile of Levi's denim jeans

How Ethical Is Levi’s?

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Levi’s has been at the forefront of the denim industry for 170 years, and gets our middling score of “It’s a Start” for its sustainability efforts, but there is still work to do. This article is based on the Levi’s rating published in February 2024. 

Cool and comfy, but not quite there

In 2023, Levi’s was the world’s top-selling denim brand, and it has been synonymous with counterculture and effortless style for over 70 years (and a workwear staple long before that). But is this household name doing anything to ensure its jeans are not just on trend but responsibly made, too? How ethical is Levi’s?

With a reported revenue of US$6.2bn in 2022 by parent company Levi Strauss & Co, it’s easy to imagine the vast, global production machine behind these huge profits. Manufacturing on such a large scale is bound to have far-reaching consequences.

In 1991, Levi’s developed Living Our Values—a Code of Conduct to guide responsible production throughout the denim giant’s supply chain. Levi’s claims the original document was landmark in the fashion industry, and has influenced many other apparel companies to adopt similar codes.

So, does it work? Let’s compare principles with practice.

Environmental impact

A product life cycle study commissioned by Levi’s showed that for one of its core products—the 501 Medium Stonewash jeans—37% of their climate impact and 23% of water consumption occurred during the consumer care phase. Levi’s took this as a call to action to shift consumer attitudes away from fast fashion-based consumption and encourage customers to treat its jeans as a long-term investment. But what actions is Levi’s taking to mitigate the environmental impact of its own operations?

Levi’s has made commitments to responsible denim production, including incorporating lower-impact materials like reconstituted cotton, and significantly reducing water use, saying in its 2025 Water Action Strategy report “we commit to reducing the amount of water we use for manufacturing in areas of high water stress by 50 percent by 2025 against a 2018 baseline.” It has also set a science-based target to reduce greenhouse gas emissions generated from its own operations and supply chain and it is on track to meet its target.

In 2012, Greenpeace named and shamed Levi’s for connections to dangerous water pollution in Mexico in their Toxic Threads report. Levi’s then pledged to reduce the hazardous chemicals used to dye and treat its clothing, and aimed for the elimination of hazardous chemicals by 2020, which it achieved with Zero Discharge of Hazardous Chemicals Group (ZDHC) across most of its supply chain. Thanks to all of this effort, we have given Levi’s a “Good” rating for the environment.

Labour conditions

Levi’s rates “It’s a Start” for labour—an improvement from “Not Good Enough” in its most recent rating review. It scored a 60% in Fashion Revolution’s Transparency Index, as it traces most of its supply chain including all of the final stage of production. It also implements gender equality and empowerment initiatives in its supply chain. Most recently, the brand has made its diversity and inclusion policy for its direct operations more comprehensive.

Despite these positive steps, there’s an area of the Levi’s supply chain that requires attention. Almost none of its supply chain is certified by labour standards which ensure worker health and safety, and Levi’s has made little progress towards ensuring the payment of a living wage for its workers across the supply chain. And despite calls for it to join the Pakistan Accord, Levi’s still hasn’t done so. Given its huge profits, we think the brand could be doing far better on this front.

Animal welfare

Levi’s animal welfare is “Not Good Enough”. It does not use fur, angora, or other exotic animal skin or hair. Its current Animal Welfare Policy insists that the supply chains for the sourcing of all animal products must be traceable where practicable to ensure humane practices. Despite this, it does still use leather, down feather, and wool without stating their sources, but states it supports wool from non-mulesed sheep and will work to “consolidate its wool sourcing accordingly, as it becomes commercially viable.”

Overall rating

We rate Levi’s as “It’s a Start” overall based on our own research. Our rating reflects the company’s ambition and ingenuity, particularly the continued headway it’s making with regards to environmentally responsible production methods. Levi’s is committed to producing quality, hard-wearing products. That said, in February 2024, the company’s new CEO expressed intentions to scale up the business and its production of other non-denim items—a worrying sign in an industry already saturated with clothes. We hope to see the brand taking a responsible approach to its production in this area.

And while a timeless pair of Levi’s jeans can be a worthy investment in combination with long-term care and repair, if you want to support a brand that is more ethical and sustainable on all fronts, then we have picked some alternatives for you.

Note that Good On You ratings consider hundreds of issues, and it is not possible to list every relevant issue in a summary of the brand’s performance. For more information, see our How We Rate page and our FAQs.

See the rating.

Shop Levi’s Pre-Owned @ Vestiaire Collective.

At Good On You, we recommend that you support brands that embrace a slow fashion model. Check out these more ethical denim labels rated “Good” and “Great” in our directory.

Good swaps

“Good” and “Great” alternatives to Levi’s

E.L.V. Denim

Rated: Great
Someone in upcycled denim jacket and jeans by ELV Denim.

E.L.V. Denim transforms old discarded denim into modern, sophisticated, and even made-to-measure jean jackets, pants, and accessories.

Find most jeans in UK sizes 24-32.

See the rating.

Shop E.L.V. Denim @ Rêve en Vert.

Shop E.L.V. Denim.

Nudie Jeans

Rated: Great

Nudie Jeans designs 100% organic cotton denim and is transparent about its production. The brand also offers a free repair service, resells second hand products, and even recycles worn out items.

Find the perfect fit with the Virtual Size Guide on the product pages.

See the rating.

Shop Nudie Jeans.

Shop Nudie Jeans @ Farfetch.

Shop Nudie Jeans Pre-Owned @ Vestiaire Collective.

Outland Denim

Rated: Great

Outland Denim makes premium denim jeans and clothes, and offers employment opportunities for women rescued from human trafficking in Cambodia. This Australian brand was founded as an avenue for the training and employment of women who have experienced sex trafficking.

Find most of the brand's range in US sizes 22-34.

See the rating.

Shop Outland Denim.


Rated: Great
image looking up at four people dressed in Unspun

unspun is an American brand, fostering a denim world that reduces global carbon emissions by 1% through a zero-inventory and anti-waste process.

Its product sizing is totally customisable to ensure you always find the perfect fit.

See the rating.

Shop unspun.

Shop unspun @ Cerqular.

MUD Jeans

Rated: Great
A man wears navy jeans and a blue top

Dutch denim brand MUD Jeans is all about sustainability. Not only does it offer a repair service, but it also provides a rental service where you can lease a pair of jeans for up to a year. MUD Jeans uses a combination of GOTS certified organic cotton and post-consumer recycled cotton.

MUD Jeans are available in a range of sizes, usually from W25 L30-W33 L32 for women and W28 L34-W36 L34 for men.

See the rating.

Shop MUD Jeans.


Rated: Good
People wearing clothing by responsible brand, Kuyichi.

Established in 2001, Kuyichi is the first organic denim brand. With top-scoring labour and environmental ratings, the brand designs durable yet trendy and modern pieces that never go out of style.

Offered in sizes XS-L.

See the rating.

Shop Kuyichi.


Rated: Great

US-based Triarchy creates more sustainable jeans, skirts, shorts, jumpsuits, and jackets. The brand’s production system uses 85% recycled water by consistently reusing the "thick indigo laden sludge" that unmonitored factories dump into water systems.

Find most of the jeans in US sizes 24-32.

See the rating.

Shop Triarchy.

Shop Triarchy @ LVRSustainable.


Rated: Good

US-based SLVRLAKE draws inspiration from its hometown of Los Angeles, set against the diverse landscape of California. The brand is committed to using lower-impact materials and is on a mission to create timeless garments that are built to stand the test of time.

Find most pieces in sizes 23-32.

See the rating.


We love these more sustainable brands listed above, but they may not meet your specific needs right now. Maybe they’re out of your price range, or don’t stock your size. If you really need something and a product from Levi’s is the best option, then you shouldn’t feel guilty about buying it. “It’s a Start” means just that—the brand is making a start. If your options are Levi’s or a denim brand that is making little to no effort for people, the planet, and animals, Levi’s is a clear winner. Progress over perfection.

You can also reach out to brands who you think need a little nudge in the right direction. If enough customers demand change, brands that truly care about their impact will have no choice but to respond in kind. Check out the “Your Voice” function on the app or slide into their DMs on social media to let them know what you think.

Editor's note

Feature image via Levi's, all other images via brands mentioned. Good On You publishes the world’s most comprehensive ratings of fashion brands’ impact on people, the planet, and animals. Use our directory  to search thousands of rated brands.

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