Material Guide: How Sustainable is Nylon?

By June 22, 2016Material Guides
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Nylon: we’ve all heard of it, and you probably already know it as that percentage on the labels of some of your stretchier clothing items like tights or stockings. But what is nylon? Where does it come from? And does it have an impact on the planet or its inhabitants? 

Apart from underwear and hosiery, nylon can also be found in the bristles of our toothbrushes, umbrellas, knits, and swimwear and activewear. But for something most of us interact with on a daily basis, our understanding of how the fabric is made and what it looks like probably isn’t up to scratch.

A brief history

Nylon was the first fabric made entirely in a laboratory and its invention represents the dawn of the age of synthetics. Nylon became widely available to the general public around the time of World War II. Nylon had two several important roles to play in wartime. Firstly – thanks to its strength and durability – nylon was used extensively for military products, including parachutes, tents, rope and tyres. Secondly, nylon replaced everything that was once made from silk – such as silk stockings – as silk imports from Asia experienced significant shortages and price fluctuations.

But what actually is it?

Essentially, nylon is a type of plastic derived from crude oil. This plastic is then put through an intensive chemical process, resulting in the strong, stretchy fibres that make it so useful as a fabric.

9417469324_66a125d348_bMore specifically, nylons are a family of materials called polyamides, made from reacting carbon-based chemicals found in coal and petroleum in a high-pressure, heated environment. This chemical reaction, known as condensation polymerization, forms a large polymer – in the form of a sheet of nylon. To make nylon fabric for apparel, this nylon sheet is then broken into chips, melted and drawn through a mechanical spinneret to produce individual fibres that are woven into fabric.

Nylon is not biodegradable

Different kinds of nylon have different properties, but the common threads between each are strength, durability and ability to be moulded into shape. The flip side is that no form of nylon is biodegradable; so once you no longer have a need for your torn stockings or old toothbrush, it sits in a landfill for at least 30 years.

Pollution: chemicals and water

Nylon is in part derived from coal and petroleum. In addition to supporting some of the world’s dirtiest industries, the manufacture of nylon has several other direct environmental impacts.

Greenhouse gases: producing nylon creates nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas that is 310 times more potent than carbon dioxide.

Water: manufacturing nylon is a very thirsty process; large amounts of water are used for cooling the fibres, which can be a source of environmental contamination and pollution.

Energy: manufacturing nylon is a very energy-hungry process, which contributes to environmental degradation and global warming.

The good news

Remember when we said that nylon is a plastic? Well, plastic can be recycled, right? There are several brands and accreditations that can help consumers find more sustainable nylon products. After all, just because you want to save the planet doesn’t mean you want your stockings all baggy!

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Econyl has developed an eco-friendly nylon made from recycled plastics in a closed loop system, drastically reducing waste and emissions. Their technology isn’t just for hemp wearing hippies either – it has been embraced by brands such as Levi’s and Rapanui. And don’t forget sustainable swimwear by our homegirl Elle Evans – made from recycled fishing nets.

So there you have it. Nylon is certainly not great for the environment, but there are plenty of brands who are working hard to turn that around!

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The Good On You app helps you uncover brands that have responsible and sustainable practices – so just sit back, relax and say “yes” to sustainability, “no” to baggy clothes.


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Feature image via Brooke Cagle. Additional images: Flickr Elle Evans

Ashlee Uren

Author Ashlee Uren

Ashlee Uren tries to wear the change she wants to see in the world. Her love for ethical shopping stems from her passionate belief that the actions of individuals can be incredibly powerful in positively impacting the world. Ashlee holds a double degree in Law and International Relations and in her spare time enjoys blogging about her ethical lifestyle journey at www.onefairday.com

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