Material Guide: How Sustainable is Nylon? - Good On You
22 Jun

Material Guide: How Sustainable is Nylon?

Nylon – you’ve probably seen it on the labels of some of your stretchier clothing items like tights or stockings. But what is nylon? Where does it come from? And does it have an impact on the planet or its inhabitants?

Apart from underwear and hosiery, nylon can also be found in the bristles of our toothbrushes, umbrellas, knits, and swimwear and activewear. But for something most of us interact with on a daily basis, our understanding of how the fabric is made and what it looks like probably isn’t up to scratch.

A brief history of Nylon

Nylon was the first fabric made entirely in a laboratory and its invention represents the dawn of the age of synthetics. Nylon became widely available to the general public around the time of World War II. Nylon had two several important roles to play in wartime. Firstly – thanks to its strength and durability – nylon was used extensively for military products, including parachutes, tents, rope and tyres. Secondly, nylon replaced everything that was once made from silk – such as silk stockings – as silk imports from Asia experienced significant shortages and price fluctuations.

What is Nylon?

Essentially, nylon is a type of plastic derived from crude oil. This plastic is then put through an intensive chemical process, resulting in the strong, stretchy fibres that make it so useful as a fabric.

More specifically, nylons are a family of materials called polyamides, made from reacting carbon-based chemicals found in coal and petroleum in a high-pressure, heated environment. This chemical reaction, known as condensation polymerization, forms a large polymer – in the form of a sheet of nylon. To make nylon fabric for apparel, this nylon sheet is then broken into chips, melted and drawn through a mechanical spinneret to produce individual fibres that are woven into fabric.

Nylon’s impact on the planet

Different kinds of nylon have different properties, but the common threads between each are strength, durability and ability to be moulded into shape. The flip side is that no form of nylon is biodegradable; so once you no longer have a need for your torn stockings or old toothbrush, it sits in a landfill for at least 30 years.

Nylon is in part derived from coal and petroleum. In addition to supporting some of the world’s dirtiest industries, the manufacture of nylon has several other direct environmental impacts.

  • Greenhouse gases: producing nylon creates nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas that is 300 times more potent than carbon dioxide.
  • Water: manufacturing nylon is a very thirsty process; large amounts of water are used for cooling the fibres, which can be a source of environmental contamination and pollution.
  • Energy: manufacturing nylon is a very energy-hungry process, which contributes to environmental degradation and global warming.

But, there’s good news

Remember when we said that nylon is a plastic? Well, plastic can be recycled, right? There are several brands and accreditations that can help consumers find more sustainable nylon products. After all, just because you want to save the planet doesn’t mean you want your stockings all baggy!

Swedish Stockings, for example, produces beautiful pantyhose from recycled yarn. Their factories also use eco-friendly dyes, post-dyeing water treatment and solar power for much of the energy needed in the manufacturing process.

Swedish Stockings

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Swedish Stockings creates the best quality eco-friendly black and patterned stockings, knee highs, tights, socks and pantyhose.

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Econyl has developed an eco-friendly nylon made from recycled plastics in a closed loop system, drastically reducing waste and emissions. It has been embraced by brands such as Stella McCartney, Finisterre, Outerknown and allSisters.

However, it’s important to keep in mind that even if these are commendable efforts to clean up some of the huge amounts of rubbish in our oceans, and they are a better option than traditionally produced synthetic fabrics, there is still the issue of microplastics.

Microfibres, or tiny bits of plastic, are shed by clothing made from synthetic fabrics every single time they are washed, including recycled synthetic fabrics, and they make their way to the ocean by the billions. Luckily, there are great solutions out there that can help us manage microfibres, which we’ve detailed in our guide to recycled plastic clothing.

So there you have it. Nylon is certainly not great for the environment, but there are plenty of brands who are working hard to turn that around!


Learn more about sustainable and ethical materials.

Editor's note

This article was updated in August 2018. Featured image by Hanna Postova on Unsplash. Photos by Lina Trochez on Unsplash and Alex on Unsplash. Good On You publishes the world’s most comprehensive ratings of fashion brands’ impact on people, the planet and animals. Use our Directory to search more than 2,000 brands. We may earn a commission on sales made using our offer codes or affiliate links.

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